Saturday, March 21, 2020
20 Essay Topics on Affluenza The Best Social Psychology Topic The task of writing successfully on any subject matter, regardless of how difficult or technical it might be, depends on your understanding of the subject matter in question as well as your choice of a topic to work on. This happens to be the case for writing essays on social psychology and influenza. Therefore, before providing some of much needed help in choosing a social psychology essay topic on affluenza, here is a brief description of affluenza and the psychology behind it. The word affluenza has derived from the words influenza and affluence. Psychologists describe affluenza as psychological conditions were an unhealthy attachment to wealth affecting an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s decision making abilities and his or her emotional intelligence. There are currently multiple studies conducted on the subject of affluenza and these researches have brought out facts that must be included in your essay. Understanding the importance of facts in buttressing your points, we have provided you with 10 facts for a compare and contrast essay on social psychology and affluenza that can be used in developing social psychology essay topics on affluenza in a previous article you must consider reading. 20 essay topics on the social psychology of affluenza: Understanding Affluenza and Its Psychological Effects on Society Affluenza and its Harmful Effects on the Human Psyche Affluenza in the Developed World: An Unhealthy Fascination with Wealth Are Wealthier Regions More Susceptible to Affluenza? Scrutinizing Affluenza and Its Effects on Humans Affluenza: A Real Psychological Problem or a Farce The Consumerism Theory and Affluenza Diagnosis The Role of the Media in Perpetuating an Unhealthy Consumer Culture Pursuing the American Dream in Relation to Affluenza Is Affluenza a Contagious Psychological Condition? Societies Pressures Contributing to Affluenza Rehabilitation and Affluenza: A Working Theory Social Psychology Challenges: Diagnosing and Curing Affluenza Human Errors and the Role Affluenza Plays The Illusion of Success and Reduced Empathy in Wealthy Citizens Fighting Depression through an Understanding of Affluenza Studying the Correlation between Affluenza, Substance Abuse and Addiction Does Affluenza Truly Reduce the Ability to Empathize Discussing AffluenzaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ability to Cloud Moral Judgment and Decision Making Scrutinizing the Difficulties Associated with Diagnosing Affluenza These are some of the topics you can consider choosing from when tasked with drafting a social psychology essay topic on affluenza. All of these topics focus on the social effects of affluenza, its diagnosis and treatment and how it is perceived by members of the public. As stated earlier, all of these topics will rely heavily on the use of facts to send you message across and you should consider reading up the Ã¢â¬Ëfacts guidesÃ¢â¬â¢ provided for this essay. Lastly, we intend to lead by example and this will be done using a sample essay with its topic chosen from one of the 20 listed above. This written essay should serve as a guide on how to introduce your topic, develop its body and write a good conclusion covering social psychology on affluenza. Sample Compare and Contrast Essay Affluenza in the Developed World: An Unhealthy Fascination with Wealth The western world has always been fascinated with the lifestyle of the wealthy and this is why programs and movies about wealth tend to attract more viewership than any others. Sadly, social psychology studies have begun to show that this fascination is unhealthy and may have far reaching effects on society as well as the mental health status of affluent individuals. These studies led to the coining of the phrase Ã¢â¬ËaffluenzaÃ¢â¬â¢ which is a psychological issue that affect the empathy levels, mental health and emotional balance of its sufferers. Affluenza was coined from the words influenza and affluence and it affects both the young and adult mind in equal measures. There has been a lot of research done to diagnose affluenza and understand its effects on society and one of the results found was that this condition was prevalent in the developed world. Certain triggers have been identified as the reason for affluenzaÃ¢â¬â¢s polarity in the developed world and some of these include the belief in the Ã¢â¬ËAmerican DreamÃ¢â¬â¢ concept, as well as the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s constant glorification of the lifestyle of the rich and famous. These triggers make people constantly work to achieve more wealth while putting everything else on hold, only to discover that acquired wealth did not provide the feelings they have dreamt off.Ã This then leads to disenchantment and the feeling of unworthiness which are tell-tale signs of affluenza. In more advanced cases, affluenza then leads to depression and a lack of empathy for the average man thereby destroying the fabrics of peaceful co-existence. The pursuit of happiness has also led to other harmful behavioral patterns such as addiction or substance abuse among wealthy individuals. A study focused on high school studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ buttresses this fact for it found out that high school students with wealthy backgrounds tended to keep to themselves and were out of touch with reality. This social disconnect makes the children either act out or turn to substance abuse for companionship. The study also covered affluenza in adults, and it showed that wealthy individuals consumed 27% more alcohol than the less affluent and according to the study, this percentage had nothing to do with the ability of both parties to purchase alcohol. Therefore, affluenza is a psychological situation that affects both the young and old in exactly the same way. The social disconnect and lack of empathy exhibited by people suffering from affluenza can harm our community in diverse ways as the wealthy become more isolated from reality and the general state of life. The lack of emotion shown on the plight of the poor or pushing their needs under the rug can lead to the poor lashing out as seen from the movement to occupy Wall Street. In conclusion, it is important to note that there are several ways to contain affluenza such as the use of rehabilitative techniques but first, society must recognise these issues before it can successfully be dealt with. Here, we come to the end of the essay on social psychology and affluenza. We hope this provides you with a template on how to draft yours using one of the topics above to provide a direction. You can also learn more on how to strike a good compare and contrast essay on social psychology and affluenza by reading the last article in this series. References: Mark, H. (2010). Religious Groups and Affluenza: Further Exploration of the TV-Materialism Link. http://trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001context=utk_jourpubs Manchiraju, S. (2013). Materialism in Consumer Behaviour and Marketing managementmarketing.ro/pdf/articole/315.pdf Ahuvia, A. (2008). If Money doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t Make Us Happy, Why Do We Act as if it Does?Ã¢â¬ , Journal of Economic Psychology, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 491-507. Chang, L. Arkin, M. (2002). Materialism as an Attempt to Cope with Uncertainty, Psychology and Marketing, Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 389-406. Kasser, T. (2002). The High Price of Materialism, MIT Press, Cambridge. Martin, W. (2008). Paradoxes of Happiness, Journal of Happiness Studies, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 171-184. OÃ¢â¬â¢Neill, J. (1997). The Gilded Ghetto: The Psychology of Affluence, The Affluenza Project, Milwaukee.
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Congress Approval Ratings - Historic Job Approval Data The approval rating for Congress is abysmally low, and most Americans say they have almost zero faith it can solve our most important problems and view its leaders with severe contempt. But theyÃ also keep re-electing theÃ same people to represent them in the U.S. Senate and House of RepresentativesÃ year after year. How can that be? How can an institution be more unpopular than Satan, feel pressure from Americans to set term limits for themselvesÃ yet see 90 percent of its incumbents be re-elected?Ã Are voters confused? Fickle? Or just unpredictable? And why are approval ratings for Congress so low? Congress Approval Ratings Its no secret that Americans loathe Congress the institution. A majority of voters routinely tell pollsters they dont believe most members of the House and Senate deserve toÃ be re-elected.Ã Americans have held the nations legislative branch in low regard for years now, the public-opinion firm Gallup wrote in 2013.Ã In early 2014, theÃ portion of people who said the nations lawmakers should win re-election sunk to a low of 17 percent in Gallups survey.Ã The low approval ratingÃ followed congressional inaction over spending limits and an inability to reach compromise on a number of issues or avoid the government shutdown of 2013. Gallups historical average of Americans supporting re-election for members of Congress isÃ 39 percent.Ã And yet: Members of Congress have no trouble getting re-elected. Incumbents Are Safe Despite Congress historically abysmal approval ratings, well over 90 percent of House and Senate members who seek re-election win their races on average, according to data published from the Center for Responsive Politics in Washington, D.C. Few things in life are more predictable than the chances of an incumbent member of the U.S. House of Representatives winning reelection, writes the Center for Responsive Politics.Ã With wide name recognition, and usually an insurmountable advantage in campaign cash, House incumbents typically have little trouble holding onto their seats. The same goes for members of the Senate. Why Our Lawmakers Keep Getting Re-Elected There are several reasons lawmakers keep getting re-elected aside from their name recognition and typically well funded campaign coffers. One of the reasons is that its easier to dislike an institution than it is a person, especially when that person is one of your neighbors. Americans can loathe the inability of the House and Senate to reach agreement on things like the national debt. But they find it more difficult to hold their lawmaker solely responsible. The popular sentiment seems to be, as The Washington Posts Chris CillizzaÃ once put it,Ã Throw the bums out. But not my bum. Times Are Changing That sentiment - Congress stinks but my representative is OK - seems to be fading, however. Pollsters at Gallup found in early 2014, for example, that a record-low portion of voters, 46 percent, said their own representative deserved re-election. The enduring unpopularity of Congress appears to have seeped into the nations 435 congressional districts, Gallup wrote. While Congress as an institution is no stranger to voter disenchantment, American voters are usually more charitable in their assessments of their own representatives in the national legislature. But even this has fallen to a new trough. Congress Approval Ratings Through History Heres a look at the Gallups organizations numbers by year. The approval ratings shown here are from the public opinion surveys conducted the latest in each year listed. 2016: 18%2015: 13%2014: 16%2013: 12%2012: 18%2011: 11%2010: 13%2009: 25%2008: 20%2007: 22%2006: 21%2005: 29%2004: 41%2003: 43%2002: 50%2001: 72%2000: 56%1999: 37%1998: 42%1997: 39%1996: 34%1995: 30%1994: 23%1993: 24%1992: 18%1991: 40%1990: 26%1989: Not Available1988: 42%1987: 42%1986:Ã 42%1985:Ã Not Available1984:Ã Not Available1983: 33%1982: 29%1981: 38%1980: 25%1979: 19%1978: 29%1977: 35%1976: 24%1975: 28%1974: 35%
Monday, February 17, 2020
Week 3 - Marketing discussion questions - Essay Example In case of Industrial Buying, this person is called Purchase Manager. A common day example can be mothers of a teenager who give permission to their kids for buying toys of their own choice. The primary concern for such type of buyer is price. They are usually not impressed by the qualities of product as compared to other products. External factors greatly affect such kind of buying decisions. The primary tool for marketers facing such type of buyers is the price-comparison list of competitors and the independent list of features of product. b) The Expert: sometimes the consumer is not fully aware of the qualities or features of the product and they rely on expert advice for purchase of such products. For example IT consultants usually analyze the type of organization and then help the overall purchase of IT solution for the organizations. As a common day example, products such as pampers are bought by mothers who know exactly what type and quality of pampers will perform the required function for her baby. Internal factors need to be considered in marketing products to experts. To market your product to such buyers, always show the expert what your product can do. What benefits it can give to the consumer. Show him the best features of your product. c) The User: when you have to market your product to end user, always show them how the product can solve their real world problems. Marketing is very crucial in such cases. Understand their need and then market the product to make them sure that your product can fulfill their need and provide them with the desired benefits (Changingminds, 2007). 2. AmandaÃ¢â¬â¢s own confection offers different valentineÃ¢â¬â¢s chocolates such as cupid bad, hearts cello bag, and they are usually priced as $1.1 per oz. (Amandasown, 2007). Fannie May offers boxes fill with different shapes of chocolates and are priced at approximately $1.625 per oz. (Fanniemay, 2007). Then we also have Rivera Chocolates who
Monday, February 3, 2020
Science tells us the truth about reality - Essay Example The results will therefore explain real behavior of the studied objects and communicate the truth that is observed. Scientific information can also be gathered from peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions and perceptions on reality. Information that is developed from these approaches represents truth because they rely on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences or rationale from observations. Collecting data on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences, for example, develops information from peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s real life experiences. It therefore communicates the truth to the extent that the source narrated the truth. Other methods for developing scientific information such as making direct observation or analyzing secondary sources of information also support the position that science tells the truth about nature. This is because the methods are accurate and consistent (Cottrell and McKenzie 194- 196, 230- 234). These mean that science based information is derived from real life experiences and is therefore reflective of the tr uth about the reality that develops it. There are however arguments that science does not tell the truth about nature. The fact that some theories are not developed from actual data means that the theories cannot be proved using real life issues. The theories may therefore lack accuracy and consistency in what they say about reality. Inaccuracy of what science says in the theories may mean that science is not saying the truth. Scientific information may also be true in one area but it may be false in another area because of inconsistency (Cottrell and McKenzie 13). Existence of factors and happenings that science cannot explain also means that science may not be telling us the truth about reality. Logics and mathematical positions are examples of truths that science does not explain. Science only offers assumptions on the positions. Many other scientific positions are based on assumptions that cannot be
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Challenges and Opportunities of the Ethiopian Coffee Sector Coffee farmers all over the world face different challenges related to the availability, cost and quality of labor, land, water, inputs, access to reasonable production credit, and proper technical advice in response to diseases and pests. Ethiopia has a reputation of high quality coffee due to its branded varieties of coffee. But, most of the coffee farmers in Ethiopia are not capable of getting the benefits connected with production and marketing of a finest quality product. There is production, processing, storage and functioning of domestic and international market related constraints for this fact (ODI, 2009). Regardless of huge potential for collective production of coffee in Ethiopia, the average yield per hectare remains very low at 0.72 metric ton per hectare. Abu and Tedy (2013) revealed three major factors for the basis of low coffee production. First, there is a direct and increasing competition of Khat (Cata edulis), a plant with mild narcotic effects, with coffee for farmlands in different areas of the country particularly in the Hararge region. Khat is chosen by many farmers because it is more profitable and brings a consistent income during the year. Second, the farm management system of coffee and the agronomic practices in Ethiopia are traditional. In addition to this, coffee producing farmers do not get adequate extension services. Lastly, there is no specialized institution that offers extension support for production of coffee in the country. According to Taye (2010), in Ethiopia, there are several attributed factors for the low level of average production and income of coffee by the world standard. These includes insufficient credit and distribution of input devices for coffee growing farmers, principal use of conservative husbandry and processing as well as unimproved local coffee landrace practices, which in turn extremely hinders the national production and productivity of coffee produced by small-scale farmers in the country. Harvesting, post-harvest storage and processing is important in order to assure the quality of coffee. Non-selective picking practice is common by smallholder farms which contributes to poor quality coffee regardless of whether it is wet or dry processed. In addition, sorting and grading of coffee berries before further processing is a practice that is long forgotten among most smallholders because of low net earnings, high cost of labor and lack of incentives for high quality coffees. Most of the coffee growing farmers in Ethiopia have traditional and temporary storages which have its own negative effect to maximize the quality of coffee, with implications for price, profit and income (ODI, 2009). The conventional coffee value chain in Ethiopia involves a large number of intermediaries and is largely state-controlled. Licenses are required for every function in the market chain (Petit, 2007). The Ethiopian government issuing licenses for direct export has changed recently. The former system was exposed to rent seeking and political control and did not offer an inducement for quality. Coffee deliveries for export markets have adversely been affected by lack of price incentives to farmers, fluctuation of production supply due to climatic variations and unstable prices (ECX, 2009). According to the Ministry of Agriculture (2013), the Ethiopian coffee sector faces persistent challenges. The major ones include very low quality control, the deficiency of a strong coffee seed supply system, inadequate consideration to the input credit provision for efficiency and quality enhancement, and lack of strong vision and path in order to support the coffee sector. Limited use of enhanced technology; land degradation and population pressure; limited access to inputs such as fertilizer, seeds, credit and irrigation; and high costs of quality coffee production and processing are also mentioned as the major challenges of the coffee sector of the country (Taye, 2013). According to Jim and Ruth (2012), the challenges to the coffee sector in Ethiopia looked devastating. They pointed out the constraints as low and inconsistent coffee quality due to poor processing; regulation of export sales through a national auction that mixed coffees from different places into a single portion and forbidden cupping earlier to sales; coffee cooperatives were technically and institutionally weak; loan capitals for production, processing and marketing investments in were absent; and lack of international market demand understanding leads to focus on quantity rather than quality. Despite the challenges, there are several opportunities of the coffee sector in Ethiopia. The country has fertile soil, optimum temperatures, sufficient rainfall and suitable altitude for coffee production. It has diverse agro-ecology and climatic conditions, genetic biodiversity and sole distinctive characters of quality coffee. Fine specialty coffee can be produced and supplied sustainably, with producing potentially all the various types of coffee in world coffee cultivating origins. Ethiopia has an ordinary benefit in organic coffee markets as over 90% of coffee production is de facto organic (Mekuria et al. 2004). Moreover, Ethiopia is the only producer of natural forest coffee Arabica, providing scope for shade-grown coffees sale, for instance, through the certification of Rainforest Alliance. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to allow cooperatives to directly export is significant because it opened a potentially new channel of value chain for export of coffee (USAID, 2010). Positive image of the country as origin of coffee and a strong indigenous coffee culture, well established coffee brand, prospective for expansion of volume and quality coffee due to existence of adequate land and low-cost labour, high commitment of government and favourable policy environment are among the major opportunities of the coffee sector in Ethiopia (Ministry of Trade, 2013). CHAPTER THREE MATERIALS AND METHODS This chapter presents a brief profile of Ethiopia, describes the study area, the type of data collected, sampling procedure followed and analytical methods used to analyze the data. 3.1. A Brief Profile of Ethiopia Ethiopia is among the countries that have a history of early civilization.It is the only African country never been colonized. It was previously known as Abyssinia. It is geographically located in the Horn of Africa, 3 and 14.8 latitude and 33 and 48 longitude. The country is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Kenya to the south, South Sudan and Sudan to the west and Djibouti and Somalia to the east. It is the second most populous country in Africa with over 91,195,675 (2012 est.) inhabitants. It covers an area of 1,104,300km2. Addis Ababa is the capital city, also known as Ã¢â¬Å"the political capital of AfricaÃ¢â¬ . Ethiopia is a mountainous and landlocked country. It is situated at an altitude that ranges from 4620 meters above sea level at Ras Dashen in the Northern part of Ethiopia to 155 meters below sea level in the North east where the great Danakil depression is situated. The climate condition is hot in the lowlands and temperate in the highlands. Temperature ranges from 10oc to 30oc while rainfall ranges from 200mm to 2000 mm per year. Ethiopia is basically stated as the Ã¢â¬Å"water towerÃ¢â¬ of Eastern Africa for the reason that several (14 major) rivers that discharge off the high plateau, including Blue Nile river. The country has the highest water reserves in Africa, but it is not utilized through irrigation systems. It is only 1.5% used for irrigation and 1% for power production. Ethiopia is a multilingual and multi ethnic country in which around 86 ethnic groups are found. The majority of the population is Christian while a third of it is Muslim. The official language of Ethiopia is Amharic, even if English, Italian, French and Arabic are fairly spoken. Ethiopia uses a slightly modified form of the Julian calendar, which consists 12 equal months of 30 days each and a thirteenth month of five days (six days in a leap year). The Ethiopian calendar is eight years late with the Gregorian (Western) calendar from September 11 to December 31 and seven years in the rest of the year. Ethiopia is an independent republic functioning under the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) constitution. The President is head of state whereas the Prime Minister is the head of government. The country is divided into nine autonomous regional states and two special city administrations. The two cities administrations as well as the nine national regional states are further divided into 800 Woredas/districts and around 15,000 Kebeles (5,000 Urban and 10,000 Rural). Agriculture is the foundation of EthiopiaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, responsible for 45.6% of GDP, 80% of employment, 80% of exports and 52% of exports for foreign exchange. Industry and services cover 13.4% and 41% of GDP respectively. Coffee, pulses, oil-seeds, hides and skins, khat, cut flowers, gold, meat, live animals and textile garments are major export items of the country. Rural Ethiopia contains about 84% of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s population. Banking, insurance and micro-credit industries in Ethiopia are regulated to domestic investors; however the country has attracted substantial foreign investment in leather, textiles, manufacturing and commercial agriculture. All the land is owned by the state which is state in the constitution. The government provides long-term leases to the tenants and distributes the land use certificates which help the tenants to have more recognizable rights to persistent possession and hence make more rigorous efforts to expand their leaseholds. According to the IMF report (2012), the growth of Ethiopian economy was one of the fastest in the world. The country registered over 10% economic growth for six years between 2004 and 2009.It was a non-oil-dependent economy in Africa with the fastest-growing rate in the years 2007 and 2008. However, thegrowth has slowed temperately to 7%in the year 2012 and is projected to be 6.5% in the near future.The country faces high inflation challenge and balance of payment difficulties. Inflation is projected to be at about 22 percent for the year 2011/12. The economy still faces a number of serious structural problems. The per capita income of the country is one of the lowest globally even if the GDP growth has remained high. There is low productivity of agriculture and frequent droughts which strictly affected the country. 3.2. Description of the Study Area: Mana District of Jimma Zone This study was conducted in Manna district of the Jimma administrative zone in the Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia. The area was selected on the grounds that these villages would provide a picture of the range of production and employment options available to households in a coffee producing area, with reasonably good links to the wider economy. They also needed to be accessible during the rainy season when the study was carried out. Oromia Regional State has 12 administrative zones and 180 woredas. It is the largest Regional State in Ethiopia in terms of population and area. It covers an area of 367,000 km2 (about 30% of the total area of the country) and a population of more than 26 million inhabitants (35%). From the total population, 88 percent lives in rural areas where the average household size is 5 persons and 35 percent lives below the absolute poverty line (CSA, 2008). Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of Oromia region. It is considered as fragmented and subsistence farming. The majority of the farmers depend on coffee. Farmers producing Ã¢â¬Å"ArabicaÃ¢â¬ coffee in Oromia region are 424,309 and 95 percent of the production is done by small-scale farmers. From the total amount of marketed coffee that is produced in the region, 85 percent is sun dried or unwashed (IPMS, 2007). Jimma zone is one of the 12 administrative zones in Oromia Regional State. It is located in the Southwestern part of Ethiopia between 7Ã ° 13Ã¢â¬â¢ and 8Ã ° 56Ã¢â¬â¢ N latitude, and 35Ã ° 52Ã¢â¬â¢ and 37Ã ° 37Ã¢â¬â¢ E longitude. It has an area of approximately 19,300 KmÃ ². Jimma town which is 335 Km southwest of Addis Ababa, is the capital and administrative center of the zone. Its population is around 2.4 million, of which approximately 5% lives in Jimma town. Crude population density is 106 persons per km2. There are approximately 644kms of all-weather roads and 447km of dry weather roads in the zone (CSA, 2008). The Altitude of Jimma zone varies from 880 to 3,340 meter above sea level. The topography includes dissected plateaus, mountains, plains, hills, gorges and valleys. There are many intermittent streams and perennial rivers. The zone is characterized by its humid tropical climate with heavy annual rainfall ranging from 1200 to 2400 mm per year, with a long rainy season from February/March to October/November. The temperature ranges from 25 to 30Ã °C with a minimum temperature of 7Ã °C. The agro-climatic divisions of the area are classified as Kolla (14.9% lowlands), Woinadega (64.4% mid highlands) and Dega (20.5% highlands). High forest, shrubs, woodland and man-made forests are found in the zone. Out of the 13 Woredas of the zone, only 7 focus on coffee production. Manna, Gomma, Limmu Seka and Limmu Chekrosa woredas are well-known as mainly coffee growing areas (Jimma Zone Agriculture, 2010). Manna Woreda is one of the 13 woredas of Jimma zone known for its predominant coffee cultivation. It is located between 7Ã °46.5 and 7Ã °51.5 in North while 36Ã °40 and 36Ã °42 in East and found in central parts of the zone. The woreda is located at 35 km west of Jimma town and about 6 km from Yebu town which is the woreda capital. The total area of the woreda is 480 km2 (48,000 ha) of which 12% is highland, 65% intermediate highland and 23% lowland. It lies between 1,470 and 2,610m altitude. It has an average annual rainfall of 1500 mm with mean average temperature of 19oc (ARDO, 2008). It occupies loamy soils with production of coffee, cereals and vegetables. Coffee accounts for 80% of the production. Distric Nitosols and Orthic Acrisols are the dominant soil types with slightly acidic PH, which is suitable for coffee production found in the woreda (ORG, 2003). Manna Woreda (district) is most densely populated district in Jimma zone with 308 persons per KmÃ ². The total population of the woreda is estimated at 146,675 inhabitants (CSA, 2008). 89% of the district area is arable (with 86% under cultivation), 2.7% is grazing and 2.8% forest lands. The major cash crop commodities which are cultivated in the district include coffee, chat (Catha edulis), tropical and sub-tropical fruits (mango, avocado, papaya, banana, orange, pineapple) and spices (mainly ginger and Ethiopian cardamom). Among cereals, maize, teff, wheat, barley and sorghum are grown in the area; amongst of which, maize is the dominant cereal crop in the farming system. Livestock commodities include cattle, small ruminants (sheep and goat), apiculture, poultry and equines. Lady bird beetle, Stalk borer, ape, pig, warthog, and porcupine are major crop pests. Compared with other woredas in Jimma zone, Manna has a high population density, smaller size and relatively better access t o infrastructure and services (IPMS, 2007).
Saturday, January 18, 2020
As a woman in the 19th century, the odds were against Margaret Fuller. Despite adversity, she became a literary scholar and icon for woman to strive to emulate for greatness. Margaret FullerÃ¢â¬â¢s development as a writer marked the transformation of America. Through FullerÃ¢â¬â¢s influence, a young country looking primarily to writers overseas for its literature became a more self-confident nation. Margaret Fuller was an American literary critic, feminist critic, social critic, essayist, poet, letter writer, and pioneer. She is often considered the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s first woman with a nationally positive reputation. Margaret FullerÃ¢â¬â¢s intellect was further recognized by Ralph Waldo Emerson as being equivalent to the intelligence of a man. Therefore, it can be said that she paved the way for women to aspire to achieve success. By examining the literary works of Margaret Fuller, her writings plainly reflect American women as a whole and would be more affective to readers as a notable part in the English curriculum. Margaret Fuller was born on May 23, 1810, in Cambridgeport, Massachusetts. She was the oldest of nine children born to Unitarian parents who raised her with strong discipline. As a result of her upbringing, Margaret Fuller became a high-strung child prodigy (Goodwin). FullerÃ¢â¬â¢s combination of domestic and professional accomplishments is attributed to the education she received from her father, Timothy Fuller. This strict education gave her a special ability to analyze the strengths and limitations of both masculinity and femininity. Margaret Fuller became a teacher at the Bronson Alcott Temple School for women. The Alcott School was a controversial place to learn at because the students were taught about integration and the social acceptance of others. Fuller was a revolutionary figure for women because it was illegal to teach women oral communication skills and to give them the insight to philosophize current situations in politics, the work place, and the home. She wanted women to become independent, creative thinkers. Fuller also joined Ralph Waldo Emerson and others to found the Dial. She served as the editor of The Dial for two years, then published her feminist classic, Woman in the Nineteenth Century, in 1845 (Goodwin). By the time of her death in 1850 at age 40, in a shipwreck while returning to the United States in, Margaret Fuller had become a near legend for her courage, passionate political advocacy and unconventional lifestyle. Perhaps one of her most noted books, Women of the Nineteenth Century was the examination of men and women in America. Woman of the Nineteenth Century speaks out against the degradation and the slavery of women. Fuller wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"Tremble not before the free man, but the slave who has chains to break. In slaveryÃ¢â¬ ¦ women are on a par with men. Each is a work tool, an article of property, no more! In perfect freedomÃ¢â¬ ¦ in the heaven where there is no marrying or giving marriage, each [woman] is a purified intelligence, an enfranchised soul no less. Ã¢â¬ (Fuller 29) The basis for FullerÃ¢â¬â¢s essay is the idea that man will rightfully inherit the earth when he becomes an elevated being, understanding the idea of divine love. The essay describes her belief that man cannot find perfection because he is burdened with selfish desires. Fuller is optimistic and says that human kind, however imperfect, is on the verge of a new awakening. She also argued that in comparison to men in Germany, America does not yet know how to properly treat women, made clear by the statement, Ã¢â¬Å"Germany did not need to learn a high view of women; it was inborn in that race. Ã¢â¬ (Fuller 30) Margaret Fuller continues her thoughts by saying that Christian men emulate the way women are treated whether it be good or bad in accordance with the Bible. She claims that in the past man has always called for womanÃ¢â¬â¢s service, but soon will come the time when women will call for men and they will be equals and share divine love. One of FullerÃ¢â¬â¢s main arguments is that America has been hindered from reaching equality because it inherited depravity from Europe, hence its treatment of Native and African Americans. Fuller Expresses that those who infringe on othersÃ¢â¬â¢ rights are condemned because man needs to practice divine love in order to feel it. The analysis of this essay proves Margaret FullerÃ¢â¬â¢s worth as a feminist and transcendentalist who greatly influenced American literature. Her perspectives on the roles of women and men within humanity are a key point to this essay. With these views, Fuller was a highly persuasive womenÃ¢â¬â¢s activist that should be celebrated even in modern literature. Margaret Fuller concluded that in order to explore her beliefs and her life, she need to travel and experience spiritual discovery through transcendentalism. The need for spiritual discovery led to FullerÃ¢â¬â¢s first original book-length work, the product of her journey through what was then considered the far western frontier in mid-nineteenth-century America. This autobiography or travel log, Summer on the Lakes in 1843, occupies a pivotal position in Margaret FullerÃ¢â¬â¢s development as a writer, a Transcendentalist, and a feminist. The book is a personal account of FullerÃ¢â¬â¢s inner life during the summer of 1843 and is a portfolio of sketches, poems, stories, anecdotes, dialogues, reflections, and accounts of a leisurely journey to the Great Lakes. She shared with the Transcendentalists the belief that internal travel, or what Emerson called travel within the mind, was the most significant kind of journey. Her travel away from New England to visit Niagara Falls, Mackinac Island, and Rock River, Illinois, is symbolic of a larger journey that Fuller was making in her spirituality and personal discovery. Drawing on historical sources, contemporary travel books, and her own firsthand experience of life on the prairie, Fuller used the opportunity of visiting the frontier to meditate on the state of her own life and of life in America. Critics often claim that this meditation, or exploration of life, is what ultimately led Fuller to become such an influential writer for women everywhere. After the publication of Summer on the Lakes in 1843 the amount of women writers increased substantially. Margaret Fuller continued to write impressive works of literature that were influential within American culture. Life Within Life Without is about the exploration of transcendentalist ideas. One of the main ideas in the essay is the cultivation of the individual, which to Fuller, included women as well as men. Fuller claims that men and women can each live two lives; the outward life, passed in reading the thoughts of others, and the inward life that is the product of every personÃ¢â¬â¢s individual nature. The essay applies the idea that the individual has the potential to enlighten all mankind. In this essay, Fuller expresses her belief that allowing women as individuals to have greater spiritual and intellectual freedom will advance the enlightenment of both men and women and, therefore, all of mankind. Each type of living, inward and outward, contributes to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s overall development in thought and action. Fuller argues that these two states affect the passions, affections , and aspirations of all people. Because Fuller was passionate about giving equal rights to both men and women, this ssay was controversial. In later years, however, this essay became one of the foundations for the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights movement, influencing women everywhere become involved in achieving equal rights. One of Margaret FullerÃ¢â¬â¢s last works, Papers on Literature and Art, is a selection of works accumulated throughout her writing career. The papers contain some of FullerÃ¢â¬â¢s earliest works as well as many of her later works and show the growth that she experienced through her writing over time. Along with these selections Fuller inserted segments of prose and verse. Ben Jonson wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"Where ever she has herself arisen in private history, and nobly shone forth in any form of excellence, men have received her, not only willingly, but with triumph. Their encomiums indeed, are always, in some sense, mortifying; they show too much surprise. Ã¢â¬ËCan this be you? Ã¢â¬â¢, he cries to the transfigured Cinderella; well I should have never thought it but I am very glad. We will tell everyone that you have surpassed your sex. Ã¢â¬ (Fuller-Ossoli) In response to JonsonÃ¢â¬â¢s comment, Fuller compiled the works that she had written up to that point and titled the compilation Papers on Literature and Art. Fuller wanted to demonstrate the amount of progressive personal growth she had experienced through her work as a writer. The papers were an accumulation of FullerÃ¢â¬â¢s writings that expressed her thoughts on everything from transcendentalism to feminism, her opinions, and her developing ideas. Margaret Fuller was an icon to many literary scholars and continues to have a great impact on female writers of the modern era. Her works are important to the feminine literary movement as well as the literary movement as a whole. Any reader can learn from Margaret Fuller about personal growth, self discovery, and equality between all individuals. FullerÃ¢â¬â¢s works were influential enough in society in her era, that they are best explored by the incorporation in English literature curriculums throughout America. Fullers influence extended to many women including womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights activists such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Grace Greenwood, and Ida B. Wells. Through FullerÃ¢â¬â¢s influence women such as these were able to push womenÃ¢â¬â¢s American rights to the freedoms that modern women benefit from today.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
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